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Moscow

1. Moscow was founded by the prince Yuri Dolgoruky. It was fortified and became a market town in the late 12th century. The town was almost totally destroyed in 1237 and 1293 during the Tatar invasion. In the early 14th century Moscow became the political and religious centre of the north-eastern part of Russia. By the end of the 15th century, Moscow extended its rule over most of central and northern Russia. Its rulers continued to build fortifications around it. In the 19th century Moscow became a centre for industry and commerce, as well as leading cultural, scientific and political centre. In 1918 Moscow was a capital of the USSR.

2. Moscow is the capital of Russia, its economic, commercial and cultural centre. Moscow is the largest metropolitan area in Russia with the population of about 10 million people, one of the largest cities in the world. We say that Moscow is a port of five seas, as the Moscow—Volga Canal links Moscow with the Baltic, White, Caspian and Black seas and the Sea of Azov. The city is situated on low hills on the banks of the Moskva River. The original settlement was founded where the Kremlin now stands. Because of its central location in the heart of European Russia. Moscow became a focal point for important trade routes. Moscow covers the territory of 880 square kilometers.

3. Moscow is a political centre of the country. It is the seat of the Government of the Russian Federation. International congresses, summits and meetings of foreign delegations are held in Moscow. The government, all Ministries the State Duma and the Cabinet of Ministers are situated here. Our country has a multiparty system. Central offices of main political parties of the country are situated in Moscow.

4. Moscow is one of the largest industrial centres of Russia. The industry of Moscow represents the unique industrial complex including the enterprises of almost all industries ( factories, plants, work-shops) . Engineering and metalworking are by far the most important industries. Other important activities include the manufacture of textiles, chemicals and derivative products, and consumer goods.There are many joint-stock and joint-venture companies here. Moscow is the headquarters of state insurance and banking organizations.

5. Moscow is a scientific and cultural centre where there are lots of institutes, universities, libraries, museums, technical schools, colleges and secondary schools. Russia’s largest University, over 80 scientific research institutions, academies of music and art are situated here. One of the most famous universities in Moscow is Moscow State University where young people from different parts of our country and many foreign countries study in it. Moscow is the seat of the Academy of Sciences. Scientific research is conducted by the Academy of Sciences of Russia and many institutions are linked to industry.

6. Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The heart of Moscow is Red Square. It has more historic associations than any other place in Moscow. The Kremlin and St Basil's Cathedral (Vastly Blazheny) are masterpieces of ancient Russian architecture. The main Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of the country. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. St Basil's Cathedral was built in the mid-16th century in memory of the victory over Kazan.

The Bolshoi Theatre is one of the famous theatres all over the world. If you are fond of painting you can go to the Tretyakov Art Gallery or to the Pushkin Fine Arts Museum and see a lot of interesting portraits and landscapes there. We say that the Tretyakov Art Gallery is a treasure-house of Russian art. The monuments to the great Russian writer Alexander Pushkin and to the first Russian printer Ivan Fedorov are among the most famous.

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