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Comparisons__________________________________________

The coach is cheap. It is slow, though. The train is more expensive than the coach. It is also faster. The plane is the most expensive of all. It is also the fastest.

For comparison, adjectives have got two forms: the comparative and the superlative

We use the comparative form + than to compare two

people, things, etc.

Tina is shorter than Pam.

This chair is more comfortable than the other one.

We use the + superlative form + of/in to compare one person, thing, etc with more than one person, thing, etc. in the same group. We use in when we talk about places.

Peter is the smartest of all my students.

'Don's' is the most expensive restaurant in our town.

♦ The comparative of one-syllable adjectives is formed by adding -er, and the superlative by adding -est. e.g. soft - softer - softest The comparative of real, right and wrong is formed with more and the superlative with most. e.g. real - more real - most real Some one-syllable adjectives of abstract meaning such as clear, safe, true, free, wise, etc. take either -er/-est or more/most. e.g. clear - clearer - clearest OR clear - more clear - most clear

♦ The comparative of two-syllable adjectives ending in -y is formed by adding -ier and the superlative by adding -iest. e.g. easy - easier - easiest (more usual) Also easy - more easy - most easy (less usual)

Some two-syllable adjectives such as: clever,

common, stupid, narrow, gentle, friendly, simple,

etc. take either -er -est or more/most.

common - commoner - commonest OR common - more common - most common

♦ The comparative of adjectives ending in -ing (interesting), -ed (pleased), -ful (careful) and -less (careless) is formed with more and the superlative with most. e.g. thrilling - more thrilling - most thrilling

♦ The comparative of adjectives of three or more syllables is formed with more and the superlative with most

intelligent - more intelligent - most intelligent

Word Formation_________________________________________

Prefixes are syllables which we add before certain words to form new words. The meaning of the new word depends on the prefix that has been used.

anti-

=

against

antisocial

bi-

=

two

biannual

co-

=

with

co-driver

ex-

=

previous, former

ex-husband

Inter-

=

between

international

mls-

=

done wrongly or badly

misbehave

mono-

=

one

monorail

multi-

=

many

multinational

non-

=

not

non-fiction

out-

=

more, better

outnumber

over-

=

(done) to a great extent

overwork

post-

=

after

postdate

pre-

=

before

prehistoric

pro-

=

in favour of

pro-government

re-

=

again

redecorate

semi-

=

half

semi-final

sub-

=

under, less

submarine

super-

=

big, more

superhuman

trans-

=

(travel) from one side, group etc to another

transcontinental

under-

=

not enough

undercooked

♦ The prefixes below are used to express opposite meanings.

de- defrost, decompose

die- dishonest, dislike

in- indirect, independent. il- (bef. I) illogical. im- (bef. m, p) immoral, impractical. Ir- (bef. r) irresponsible but: unreliable, unreasonable

non- non-smoker, non-stop un- unacceptable, unemployed

♦ Suffixes are syllables which we add to the end of certain words to form new words.

♦ Nouns referring to people

• verb + er/or/ar. teach - teacher, sail - sailor, beg - beggar

• noun/verb/adjective + ist. motor - motorist, tour - tourist, national – nationalist

• verb + ant/ent. contest - contestant, study - student

• noun + an/Ian. republic - republican, library - librarian

• verb + ее (passive meaning). train trainee

♦ Nouns formed from verbs

-age pack - package

-al refuse - refusal

-ance accept - acceptance

-ation realize - realization

-ence differ - difference

-ion . revise - revision

-ment enjoy - enjoyment

-sion comprehend -comprehension(verbs ending in -d/-t)

-sis hypnotise - hypnosis

-tion prescribe - prescription

♦ Nouns formed from adjectives

-ance important - importance

-cy vacant – vacancy

-ence competent - competence

-ion desolate – desolation

-ness lonely - loneliness

-ity formal - formality

-ty loyal - loyalty

-y modest - modesty

♦ Adjectives formed from nouns

-ous fame - famous

-al addition - additional

-ic hero - heroic

-ive expense - expensive

-ful (with) care careful

-less (without) care – careless

-y health - healthy

-ly friend - friendly

♦ Adjectives formed from verbs

-able like - likeable

-ible defend defensible

-ive conclude - conclusive

♦ Verbs formed from adjectives

-en light – lighten

-ise legal - legalize

♦ The comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are formed in the same way as those of adjectives.

♦ Adverbs which have the same form as the adjective usually take -er in the comparative and -est in the superlative.

e.g. hard - harder - hardest late - later - latest

♦ Adverbs formed by adding -ly to the adjective take more in the comparative and most in the superlative form.

e.g. comfortably - more comfortably -most comfortably

♦ Irregular comparisons:

adjective/adverb – comparative – superlative

good/well – better – best

bad/badly – worse – worst

much/many/a lot of – more – most

little – less – least

far - further/farther - furthest/farthest

a) further/farther (adv) = longer (in distance)

Barclays Bank is further/farther away than Lloyds. further (adj) = more e.g. Let's hope there won't be any further delays. (NOT:... farther delays)

b) elder/eldest (+noun) (adj) = for members of a family

My elder brother is a doctor. But: My brother is older than me. (NOT: elder then)

♦ We use adjectives or their comparative or superlative forms with the following words:

a) very + adjective

It's very cold today.

b) even / a lot / much / far / a bit / a little / slightly + comparative

He seems much better today.

c) by far + superlative

She's by far the most beautiful woman I've ever seen.

d) most + adj/adv = very

This is most unusual. (It is very unusual.)

e) any/no + comparative (it is used in questions and negations)

The days aren't getting any warmer. I want no more of that kind of behavior.

Соседние файлы в папке Шпаргалка по грамматике - Grammarway (Essentials) - Faz - 2006