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XI. Insert the proper words, see the words below

  1. The range of his scientific … was remarkably wide and varied.

  2. Russian seamanship … much to Lomonosov.

  3. He carried out the very important work of making a full … of the Russian Empire.

  4. The great scientist realized the necessity of … the Arctic Ocean.

  5. After his death Admiral Chichagov tried to put Lomonosov’s ideas into …

  6. Lomonosov’s works contain many important data on the change of tides, the depen­dence of the concentration of salt in sea water on the … of the coast and ice, etc.

  7. Under his supervision various marine …, such as spyglasses, barometers, thermometers and so on, were made.

  8. Lomonosov invented an observation post of special construction convenient for … the sea in stormy weather.

  9. His research work Discussions on Greater Precision in … lay in the archives of the Academy of Sciences for more than 150 years.

  10. One of these devices was a … compass.

  11. Now this ap­paratus invented by Lomonosov is called a ...

  12. Lomonosov also invented a mechanical log connected with the … of the ship

  13. The navigator could easily calculate the distance … by the ship.

  14. Lomonosov insisted on … a Seafaring Academy for research work in all fields connected with seamanship.

  1. activities

  2. atlas

  3. course recorder

  4. covered

  5. establishing

  6. exploring

  7. hull

  8. instruments

  9. owes

  10. practice

  11. seafaring

  12. self-recording

  13. vicinity

  14. watching

XII. Say in one word, see the words below

      1. scientific study of sea currents, the sea bed, and fish and animals that live in the sea

      2. an instrument used to find directions with a magnetic needle pointing to the north

      3. a special device used to record the route of the ship

      4. a collection of documents that contain historical information

      5. the body of the ship

      6. a device on a ship to see the speed or distance covered by the ship

      7. a book of maps and charts

      8. the regular change in the level of the sea on the shore

      9. the area near or surrounding some place

      10. a small hand-held telescope

  1. archive

  2. atlas

  3. compass

  4. course recorder

  5. hull

  6. log

  7. oceanography

  8. spyglass

  9. tide

  10. vicinity

XIII. Give English equivalents

великий русский учёный, диапазон научной деятельности, быть обязанным, выполнить работу, понимать необходимость исследования, проложить морской путь, для этой цели, претворить в жизнь, важные сведения, изменение приливов, вблизи побережья, под наблюдением, подзорная труба, наблюдательный пост, удобный для слежения, бóльшая точность, приборы и механизмы, курсограф, соединённый с корпусом судна, вычислит расстояние, рулевая рубка, поднять лаг, во всех областях, связанный с мореплаванием

XIV. Tell your classmates about a great Russian scientist or explorer unit VI Admiral Spiridov and the battle of Chesma,

1770

The famous battle of Chesma took place on the 25th – 26 th of June, 1770, in the Bay of Chesma in the Aegean Sea during the Russian-Turkish War of 1768 –1774.

In July 1769, a squadron under the command of Admiral Spiridov sailed out from Kronstadt and in February 1770 came to the Mediterranean theatre of war, where it seized Mizitra, Arcadia, and the fortress of Navarin, and assisted in the landing operations in Morea. Spiridov now proposed conducting all operations on the sea so as to destroy the main forces of the Turkish fleet

On the 23rd of June 1770, the Turkish fleet was located at the island of Thasos, an­chored in two parallel lines.

The enemy had 16 battleships, 6 frigates and up to 60 smaller ships against 9 Russian warships. Nevertheless, Spiridov decided to attack the Turkish fleet. His tactics were new. Commanding the advance guard, which sailed perpendicularly to the front-line of the enemy instead of sailing in the usual way, parallel to the front-line, Spiridov ordered the ships to open fire at the shortest range, then approach within musket-shot and start a hurricane fire, closing up with hand-to-hand fighting.

The Turkish fleet was defeated and, pursued by the Russians, had to take shelter in the Bay of Chesma, where it was blocked up. To inflict the final blow on the enemy, Spiridov sent out a squadron comprising 4 battleships, 2 frigates, 1 bombardier-ship and 4 fire-ships under the command of Commodore S. K. Grieg. On the night of June 26th Admiral Spiridov ordered the battleship Yevropa to enter the bay and open fire on the Turkish Fleet. After this the rest of the squadron joined the battle, shooting two enemy ships into flames. The frigates were meanwhile firing at the coastal batteries. The fire-ship commanded by Lieutenant D. S. Ilyin shot into flames and then blew up another Turkish warship, causing a big fire. The artillery fire of the Russian warships and the outspread of the fire in the bay led to the total destruction of the Turkish fleet. In Chesma Bay the Russians destroyed 15 enemy battleships, 4 frigates and more than 50 other warships of the enemy. Besides, 1 battleship and 6 galleys were captured. The Turks lost about 10,000 men while the Russians lost only eleven.

The victory of the Russian Navy at Chesma brought about many anti-Turkish uprisings in Egypt and Syria.

The night sea battle of Chesma, in which the Russians defeated the enemy fleet though it was under cover of coastal batteries, testifies to the high level of Russian seamanship at that time.

In memory of this victory a monument – the Chesma Column – was erected in the middle of a lake in Tsarskoye Selo (now Pushkin).

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