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XI. Say in one word, see the words below

  1. a small sailing boat with one mast

  2. to break and destroy completely

  3. an administrative division of a country

  4. complete a course of study or training successfully

  5. a building used for confinement of military prisoners

  6. the process of reasserting good relations between two people

  7. keeping in a place under control, keeping from proceeding

  8. suffer greatly or die from hunger

  9. begin to do something again after a pause

  10. a person who takes part in some secret agreement

  1. annihilate

  2. conspirator

  3. detain

  4. graduate

  5. guardhouse

  6. province

  7. reconciliation

  8. resume

  9. sloop

  10. starve

XII. Give English equivalents

родился в знатной семье, окончить кадетский корпус, помогал строить, предотвратил опрокидывание корабля, доверить важное дело, доставлять почту в посольство, обращать внимание на, арест на гауптвахту, понижение в звании, захватил крепость, присвоить чин контр-адмирала, восстановить контроль над, проследовать в, чтобы атаковать, голодный бунт, прорвать блокаду, война назревала, бросить якорь, перехватить шлюп, была объявлена война, удалось спасти, не был уполномочен, заставить передумать, отказаться сдаться, сохранять нейтралитет, взорвать и поджечь, задерживать под разными предлогами, полуживые от голода, уйти из Портмута в Ригу, декабристы, дворцовый переворот, снова призвать на службу, возобновить военные действия, был

награждён орденом, был похоронен, носят его имя

XIII. Tell your classmates about Dmitry Nikolayevich Senyavin unit XI Brig Mercury,

1828 - 1829

Principal dimensions of the ship:

length on waterline………………….23.6 m.

length on deck………………………30.9 m.

overall breadth……………………… 9.7 m.

draught forward……………………..2.74 m.

draught aft…………………………...3.96 m.

displacement…………………………390 t.

crew………………………………….110

20-gun brig “Mercury” was laid down in Sevastopol on the 28th of January (February, 9), 1819 as a special ship to protect the Caucasus coast and as a patrol ship.

At the end of Russian-Turkish war of 1828 – 1829 three Russian ships: frigate “Standart”, brig “Orfey” and brig “Mercury” (commander captain-lieutenant A. I. Kazarsky) were ordered to cruise near the way out of the strait Bosporus.

At dawn, on the 14th (26) of May, 13 miles off the strait, ship’s crew noticed Turkish squadron consisting of 14 ships sailing from the shores of Anatolia. Having counted Turkish pennants “Standart” and “Orfey” turned back. They soon reduced to two fluffy clouds on the horizon.

The best Turkish ships – 110-gun “Selime” and 74-gun “Real-bei” – gradually reached “Mercury”. The rest of the Turkish squadron lay to waiting when the admirals would catch or sink refractory Russian brig. “Mercury” had a little chance to escape. 184 guns against 20 left no hope for a successful outcome of the fight, which was inevitable.

After the first Turkish shots a council of war was held on the brig. According to the old military tradition a man of a junior rank had a privilege to express his opinion first. Navigator I. P. Prokofiev said: “We cannot escape our enemy. We will fight. Russian brig must not be taken prisoner, and if masts and spars are knocked down and it is impossible to pump the water in the hold out, any survival officer should burn a powder magazine by a pistol shot.” The commander appealed to the sailors not to disgrace the honour of the Andreev flag. All on board declared that they would be true to their duty and oath.

The real battle began when “Selime” tried to skirt the brig from starboard and fired a volley from the port side, Kazarsky managed to dodge. But the brig found itself between both ships. The dense swarm of the cannon balls flew to “Mercury”. To the demand to surrender the brig replied by volleys and rifle shots. Finally, accurately fired 24-pound cannon balls of “Mercury” damaged the bob-stay and the main top-gallant mast of “Selime” that made her lie to.

“Real-bei” went on a battle by cruel fore-and-aft volleys. “Mercury” repelled all attacks until another good shot damaged the fore-topsail-yard of the Turkish ship that stopped the battle.

As the cannonade from the South died away, “Standart” and “Orfey” considering “Mercury” sunk put a flag at half mast signifying the mourning. The next day the wounded brig joined the Russian Fleet.

Brig’s feat was highly appreciated by the enemy. After the battle one of the navigators of the Turkish ship “Real-bei” noticed, “If in the great deeds of ancient and our times there are the feats of bravery, this action puts the others in the shade, and the name of the hero should be written in the shrine of glory in gold letters: the captain was Kazarsky, and the name of the brig was “Mercury”.

Ship’s crew which added a chapter to the book of Russian sea glory was handsomely rewarded. The brig got Georgy flag and pennant. The Senate Heraldry Department introduced the picture of the pistol which was placed on the brig’s capstan near the powder magazine.

In 1834 the monument built according to the design of the architect Brullov was erected in Sevastopol on the money gathered by seamen. The high monument with the words: “To Kazarsky. To the posterity as an example” is crowned with bronze triera.

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