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ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɄɟɦȽɍ. ɋɟɪɢɹ: Ƚɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢɎɂɅɈɋɈɎɂəy2017 y ʋ 2

PHILOSOPHY

ɍȾɄ 165.3

Ʉ ȼɈɉɊɈɋɍ ȺɉɉɅɂɄȺɌɂȼɇɈɋɌɂ ɉɈɇɂɆȺɇɂə: ɉɈɅȿɆɂɄȺ ɆȿɀȾɍ ɗ. ȻɗɌɌɂ ɂ Ƚ.-Ƚ. ȽȺȾȺɆȿɊɈɆ

Ⱥɧɚɫɬɚɫɢɹ Ⱥ. Ⱥɤɫɟɧɨɜɚ1, @

1 Ʉɟɦɟɪɨɜɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ, 650000, ɝ. Ʉɟɦɟɪɨɜɨ, ɭɥ. Ʉɪɚɫɧɚɹ, 6

@ AA9515890227@yandex.ru

ɉɨɫɬɭɩɢɥɚ ɜ ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɸ 02.02.2017. ɉɪɢɧɹɬɚ ɤ ɩɟɱɚɬɢ 28.03.2017.

Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ: ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ, Ƚ.-Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪ, ɗ. Ȼɟɬɬɢ, Ɇ. ɏɚɣɞɟɝɝɟɪ, ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɚ.

Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹ: Ɋɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɹ ɩɨɥɟɦɢɤɭ ɗ. Ȼɷɬɬɢ ɢ Ƚ.-Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪɚ, ɦɵ ɧɟ ɫɬɪɟɦɢɦɫɹ ɤɪɢɬɢɤɨɜɚɬɶ ɢɥɢ ɨɬɫɬɚɢɜɚɬɶ ɜɡɝɥɹɞɵ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ, ɚ ɨɛɪɚɬɢɬɶ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɫɚɦ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɦɢɤɢ. ȼɨɩɪɨɫ ɨɛ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɥɫɹ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɭɱɟɧɵɦɢ, ɧɨ ɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɢ ɨɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɭɟɬ ɧɚɫ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɚɹ ɧɚ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ ɢ ɠɢɡɧɢ, ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɦɢɪɚ, ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ. Ȼɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɦɢɤɢ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɭ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ. ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɚ ɧɟ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦɢ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɣ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɧɟ ɫɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɤ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɝɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɡɧɚɧɢɹ, ɧɨ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɦ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɦɵ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɜɫɹɤɚɹ «ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ» ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɦ ɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ, ɧɨ ɷɬɨ ɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɚɦɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹ, ɚ ɧɟ ɟɝɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚ ɤɚɤ «ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɝɨ» ɢɥɢ «ɧɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɝɨ». Ɉɩɵɬ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ (ɚ ɧɟ ɩɪɚɝɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ) ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɚ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɢɧɬɟɧɰɢɟɣ ɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ ɷɬɨɣ ɫɬɚɬɶɢ.

Ⱦɥɹ ɰɢɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ: Ⱥɤɫɟɧɨɜɚ Ⱥ. Ⱥ. Ʉ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɭ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ: ɩɨɥɟɦɢɤɚ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɗ. Ȼɷɬɬɢ ɢ Ƚ.-Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪɨɦ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ Ʉɟɦɟɪɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ. ɋɟɪɢɹ: Ƚɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ. 2017. ʋ 2. ɋ. 61 – 64. DOI: 10.21603/2542-1840-2017-2-61-64.

ɉɪɢɱɢɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɦɢɤɢ ɗ. Ȼɷɬɬɢ ɢ Ƚ.-Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪɚ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɬ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɳɢɟ ɜɡɝɥɹɞɵ ɧɚ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɭ ɤɚɤ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɸ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ (ɗ. Ȼɷɬɬɢ) ɢ ɤɚɤ ɧɚ ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɫɤɭɸ ɞɨɤɬɪɢɧɭ (Ƚ.-Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪ), ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɸɳɭɸ ɨɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨ ɡɚɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɛɵɬɢɢ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɛɵɬɢɹ (Seinsvertaendnis), ɱɬɨ ɩɨ Ɇ. ɏɚɣɞɟɝɝɟɪɭ [1, ɫ. 104] ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ "ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɚ ɮɚɤɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ". Ⱦɥɹ Ƚ.-Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪɚ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɞɥɹ Ɇ. ɏɚɣɞɟɝɝɟɪɚ, ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ – ɮɨɪɦɚ ɩɟɪɜɢɱɧɨɣ ɞɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɢɪɚ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɭ. Ⱥɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɦɢɤɢ ɞɥɹ ɧɚɫ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɟɬ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɧɚɦɢ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɨ ɩɚɫɫɢɜɧɭɸ «ɡɨɧɭ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɧɢɹ», ɧɨ ɢ ɡɨɧɭ ɡɞɟɫɶ-ɢ-ɫɟɣɱɚɫ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ. ȼɨɩɪɨɫ ɨɛ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɤ ɱɢɫɥɭ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɨɫɬɪɵɯ ɢɡ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɬɪɚɧɫɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɢɢ. ɇɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɬɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɢɥɭ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɧɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɢɪɚ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɦɵ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɦ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɞɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɭɸ ɫ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɧɟ ɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬ ɪɚɡɧɨɝɨɥɨɫɢɰɭ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ, ɚ ɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɚ ɤ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɦɭ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɨ ɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɣ ɦɧɨɝɨɚɫɩɟɤɬɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɧɨɬɟ ɠɢɡɧɢ.

ɉɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɷɬɢɯ ɞɜɭɯ ɜɡɝɥɹɞɨɜ ɜɵɫɜɟɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɭ ɜ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɟ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɫ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɢ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɜɫɹɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ – ɫ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ. ȿɫɥɢ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɟ ɜ ɷɬɨɬ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ, ɦɨɠɟɬ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɢ ɞɚɠɟ ɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɫɜɨɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɢ ɫ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɜ, ɬɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɨɬ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɨɥɧɨɦ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ.

Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɹ ɜɨ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɸ ɗ. Ȼɷɬɬɢ, ɦɵ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɤɪɨɦɟ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɤɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ, ɤɚɤ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨ, ɚ ɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟ ɭɯɜɚɬɢɬɶ ɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɢɫɬɢɧɭ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɣ ɢɧɫɬɚɧɰɢɢ ɩɨɞ ɜɢɞɨɦ ɩɨɢɫɤɨɜ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɚɟɬ ɫɜɨɣ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɪɟɦɟɫɥɟɧɧɨɦ ɜɢɞɟ, ɤɚɤ ɜɫɹɤɚɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɟɫɥɢ ɟɟ ɩɵɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɬɨɪɜɚɬɶ ɨɬ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɹ ɫ ɫɚɦɨɣ ɠɢɡɧɶɸ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ, ɩɪɟɛɵɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɜ ɦɢɪɟ. Ɍɨ, ɱɬɨ ɗ. Ȼɷɬɬɢ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚɟɬ ɩɨɞ ɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɵɦ «ɫɚɦɨɛɵɬɢɟɦ» ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɚ, apriori ɧɟ ɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɨ, ɧɟ ɨɬɨɪɜɚɧɨ ɨɬ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ.

Ɇɧɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ ɢ ɩɨɢɫɤ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɢɫɬɢɧɵ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɤɚɤ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ

– ɷɬɨ ɞɜɟ ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɜɟɳɢ, ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɹɞɨɦ ɨɲɢɛɨɱɧɨ. ɂɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɜɜɢɞɭ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɢɫɤɢ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɱɟ-

61

ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɄɟɦȽɍ. ɋɟɪɢɹ: Ƚɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ y2017 y ʋ 2

ɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɟ ɗ. Ȼɷɬɬɢ, ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɚɬ ɫɚɦɨɣ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ. Ɂɧɚɧɢɟ ɠɟ – ɫɭɦɦɚ ɮɚɤɬɨɜ, ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɛɟɡ ɭɫɢɥɢɣ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɭɜɨɞɢɬ ɨɬ ɫɦɵɫɥɚ. ɑɬɨ ɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ ɟɞɢɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɞɥɹ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɢɥɢɣ, ɬɨ ɧɟɬ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɜ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ, ɝɞɟ ɷɬɨɬ ɨɛɴɟɤɬ ɛɵɥ ɛɵ ɫɨɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɟɧ, ɤɚɤ ɧɟɤɢɣ ɫɚɤɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬ ɢ ɬ. ɩ. ɍɤɚɠɟɦ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɧɚ ɦɵɫɥɶ Ƚ.-Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪɚ: «Ɍɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜɨɬ ɬɚɤ ɜɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɢ ɜɨɬ ɬɚɤ ɭɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ, ɜ ɫɜɨɟɦ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɢ ɤɚɤ ɪɚɡ ɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɨɛɥɢɤ ɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɹ» [2, ɫ. 120].

ɂɦɟɧɧɨ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɦɟɪɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɚɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɢɬɶ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɫɚɦɭ ɠɢɡɧɶ ɢ ɤɚɠɞɵɣ ɪɚɡ ɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬ ɩɨɢɫɤ ɧɨɜɵɯ, ɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ, ɬɚɤ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ. ɂɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɤ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɛɵɬɢɸ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɣ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ. Ʉɨɝɞɚ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɨ ɤ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢ, ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ, ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ – ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɨɛɳɚɹ, ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɠɢɡɧɢ. Ⱥɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɨɜ ɝɨɪɚɡɞɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɦɵ ɭɫɩɟɜɚɟɦ ɡɚɦɟɬɢɬɶ: ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ ɜ ɫɜɨɢɯ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɯ ɢ ɚɤɬɚɯ ɩɨɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɦɢɪɚ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧ ɤ ɩɨɢɫɤɚɦ ɢ ɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɢɹɦ ɫɦɵɫɥɚ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ. Ⱦɥɹ ɧɚɫ ɜɚɠɧɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ ɫɚɦ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ ɨɛ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɦ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɤɚɤ «ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨ ɦɵɫɥɢɬɶ», ɚ ɨɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɚɠɧɵɦ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɦ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɤɚɤ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ ɝɨɬɨɜ ɠɢɬɶ, ɤɚɤɢɟ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɫɚɦɨɣ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɫɤɪɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɧɟɝɨ, ɚ ɤɚɤɢɟ-ɬɨ, ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ, ɜɵɫɜɟɱɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ. ɉɨɱɟɦɭ ɷɬɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ, ɦɵ ɜɢɞɢɦ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ȿ. ȼ. Ȼɨɪɢɫɨɜɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɜɚɠɧɭɸ ɦɵɫɥɶ: «…ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹ – ɤɚɤ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɸɳɚɹɫɹ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɯ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɵɯ ɫɦɵɫɥɨɜ – ɫɚɦɚ ɢɧɢɰɢɢɪɭɟɬ ɧɚɲɟ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɤ ɧɟɣ» [3, c. 32]. ɂɦɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɦɵɫɥɨɜ, ɜɧɨɜɶ ɨɛɪɟɬɟɧɧɚɹ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɚɫɫɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɨɛɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɩɵɬɚ, ɚ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɩɨ ɬɚɤɨɦɭ ɤɪɭɝɭ, ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɬɟɫɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɟɣ, ɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦ ɢ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɟɣ.

ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ – ɧɟ ɫɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ «ɦɵ ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨ ɧɟ ɨɫɨɡɧɚɟɦ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɩɪɟɞɡɚɞɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ ɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹ, ɧɚɲɢɯ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɢ ɩɪ. ɂɧɚɱɟ ɝɨɜɨɪɹ, ɪɨɦɚɧɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɚ ɪɚɡɜɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɢɧɬɟɪɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ; ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɚ Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪɚ – ɜ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɚɦɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɹ» [3, c. 32]. Ⱦɥɹ Ƚ.-Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪɚ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɨ ɧɟ ɧɚ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɚɜɬɨɪɚ ɬɟɤɫɬɚ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɹ, ɚ ɧɚ ɬɨɬ ɫɚɦɵɣ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬ, ɩɨ ɩɨɜɨɞɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɦɵɲɥɹɥ ɚɜɬɨɪ: «…ɩɟɪɜɨɟ ɢɡ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɢ – ɷɬɨ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɧɨɟ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ, ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɚɹ ɬɨɝɞɚ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɹ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɢɦɟɟɦ ɞɟɥɨ ɫ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢ ɬɨɣ ɠɟ ɜɟɳɶɸ» [4, ɫ. 79]. ɉɪɢɩɢɫɵɜɚɹ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɫɬɚɬɭɫ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɚ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɚɜɬɨɪɫɤɨɦɭ ɡɚɦɵɫɥɭ, ɚɜɬɨɪɫɤɨɦɭ ɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɸ, ɚ ɧɟ ɫɚɦɨɦɭ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɸ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚ, ɗ. Ȼɷɬɬɢ ɭɯɨɞɢɬ ɨɬ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ ɧɚɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɦɦɵ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ, ɤ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɧɨ-ɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɢ. Ƚ.- Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪ ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɡɚɦɵɫɥɚ ɚɜɬɨɪɚ. Ɉɧɨ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ «ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɚɜɞɵ, ɜɨɜɫɟ ɧɟ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɸɳɟɣ ɫ ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨ ɢɦɟɥ ɜ ɜɢɞɭ ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɭɚɥ, ɫɨɡɞɚɬɟɥɶ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ» [4, c. 256]. ɉɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɧɟɦɢɧɭɟɦɨ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬ ɤɚɤ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɫɦɵɫɥɵ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɢɫ-

ɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɜɟɱɧɵɟ ɫɦɵɫɥɵ ɫɚɦɨɝɨ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɵɬɢɹ, ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɱɟɦɭ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɟɬ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɬɶ «ɜɧɟɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɭ» [4, c. 257]. Ⱥɤɬɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɫɦɵɫɥɚ ɜɫɹɤɢɣ ɪɚɡ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɬɨɪ ɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ, ɭɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɹ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɟɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɫɦɵɫɥɵ: «ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɬɨɥɤɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɧɟ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɟ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɤ ɟɝɨ “ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɭ” ɫɦɵɫɥɭ, ɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɫɦɵɫɥɨɦ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ» [3, c. 35].

Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɗ. Ȼɟɬɬɢ ɧɟ ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɹɟɬ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɣ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ, ɫɚɦɢɦ ɩɨɢɫɤɨɦ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɹ ɢ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɬɟɤɫɬɨɦ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɬɨɪɨɦ. Ɇɵ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɜɫɹɤɚɹ «ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ» ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɦ. ɂ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ, ɧɨ ɷɬɨ ɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɚɦɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ, ɚ ɧɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚ (ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɜɜɢɞɭ, ɱɬɨ ɧɟɬ ɡɚɪɚɧɟɟ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ «ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɝɨ» ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚ). ɉɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ ɗ. Ȼɟɬɬɢ, ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɦɵɫɥɨɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɹ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɬɨɪɚ, ɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɢɡ ɟɝɨ ɤɪɭɝɨɡɨɪɚ ɢ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɩɵɬɚ, ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬ ɤ ɬɨɦɭ, ɱɬɨɛɵ «ɡɚɯɜɚɬɢɬɶ ɦɨɧɨɩɨɥɢɸ ɧɚ ɢɫɬɢɧɭ» [5, ɫ. 97]. ɇɢɤɬɨ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɨɫɜɨɛɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ ɨɬ ɩɪɟɞɪɚɫɫɭɞɤɨɜ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ, ɨɬ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ – ɩɨɥɟɦɢɡɢɪɭɟɬ ɫ ɗ. Ȼɟɬɬɢ Ƚ.- Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪ. ɉɪɢɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɢ ɰɟɥɨɝɨ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɪɟɱɶ ɢɞɟɬ ɨɛ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɦɢɪɚ. ɉɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɩɨɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ, ɫ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɫ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɗ. Ȼɟɬɬɢ ɤɚɤ ɪɟɮɥɟɤɫɢɹ ɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ, ɚ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ – ɫ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ Ƚ.-Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪɚ, ɝɞɟ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɫɚɦɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ. ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɍ. ȼ. ɋɢɞɨɪɨɜɨɣ ɨ Ƚ.- Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪɟ ɫɤɚɡɚɧɨ: «ȼ ɟɝɨ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɢɢ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɭ ɨɬ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ, ɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɫɚɦɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɨɩɵɬ. ɂ ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɚ ɜ ɬɚɤɨɦ ɟɟ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɟ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ ɨɩɵɬ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ» [6, ɫ. 139].

ɍɤɚɠɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɣ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɥɢɫɶ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɢ, ɤɚɤ Ʌ. ȼ. ɇɢɤɢɬɢɧɚ («Ⱦɢɚɥɟɤɬɢɤɚ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ – ɞɜɚ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ: Ƚ.-Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪ ɢ ɗ.Ȼɟɬɬɢ» [7]) ɢ Ⱥ. ȼ. Ʉɨɩɵɥɨɜ («ɉɟɪɟɜɨɞ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɫɤɨɣ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɢ: ɩɪɨɥɟɝɨɦɟɧɵ ɤ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɸ» [8]), ɫɫɵɥɚɹɫɶ ɧɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɭ ȿ. ȼ. Ȼɨɪɢɫɨɜɚ: «ɗɮɮɟɤɬ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɧɟ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧɚ ɫɤɪɵɜɚɟɬ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɫɬɢɧɵ, ɧɨ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧɚ ɪɚɫɤɪɵɜɚɟɬ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ» [3, c. 35]. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɚ ɧɟ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦɢ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɣ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɧɟ ɫɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɤ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɝɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɡɧɚɧɢɹ, ɧɨ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɦ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɤ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ. Ʉɨɝɞɚ Ɏ. ɒɥɟɣɟɪɦɚɯɟɪ ɝɨɜɨɪɢɥ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɬɟɥɶ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɩɨɧɹɬɶ ɚɜɬɨɪɚ ɥɭɱɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɬɨɬ ɫɚɦ ɫɟɛɹ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɥ: «ɍ ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɢɫɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɦɵ ɩɪɢɧɭɠɞɟɧɵ ɬɨɱɧɟɟ ɫɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɜɬɨɪɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɯ ɦɵɫɥɟɣ ɤ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ…» [9, ɫ. 122], ɨɧ ɫɬɚɜɢɥ ɜɨɩɪɨɫ ɨɛ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɦ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɢ (ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɢ) ɬɟɤɫɬɚ, ɧɟ ɫɜɨɞɢɦɨɦ ɤ ɢɧɬɟɧɰɢɹɦ ɟɝɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɬɟɥɹ.

62

ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɄɟɦȽɍ. ɋɟɪɢɹ: Ƚɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ y2017 y ʋ 2

ȼ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɚɦɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɹ, ɜɨɩɪɨɫ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɫɜɹɡɚɧ ɫ ɪɚɛɨɬɨɣ ȼ. Ⱦɢɥɶɬɟɹ «ɇɚɭɤɚ ɨ ɞɭɯɟ», ɝɞɟ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɩɪɹɝɚɬɶ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɭɯɚ ɢ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɫ ɢɯ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɮɨɪɦɚɦɢ. Ɇɟɠɞɭ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɦ ɩɨɡɧɚɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɧɵɦ ɩɨɥɚɝɚɧɢɟɦ ȼ. Ⱦɢɥɶɬɟɣ ɧɟ ɜɢɞɢɬ ɧɟɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɦɨɣ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɵ. Ɍɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɝɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ ɟɫɬɶ «ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ, ɰɟɧɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɫɚɦɨɦ ɫɟɛɟ, ɬɨɝɞɚ ɤɚɤ ɤɚɠɞɵɣ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɣɫɹ ɜ ɧɟɦ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɜ ɫɢɥɭ ɩɨɥɚɝɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɜɨɣ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɭɧɤɬ ɜ ɫɟɛɟ ɫɚɦɨɦ, ɧɨ ɜɫɟ ɨɧɢ ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɜ ɨɞɧɨ ɰɟɥɨɟ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɢɡ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɫɦɵɫɥ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬ- ɜɟɧɧɨ-ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ» [10, ɫ. 33]. ɂ. Ⱥ. Ɇɢɯɚɣɥɨɜ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɚ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɝɪɚɮ ɉɨɥɶ Ƀɨɪɤ ɩɟɪɟɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬ ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚ «ɞɭɯ» ɢ «ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ», «ɩɪɨɲɥɨɟ» ɢ «ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ», «ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ» ɢ «ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɢ»: ɜɚɠɧɨɣ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɫɭɳɚɹ ɜɫɟɦɭ ɦɢɪɭ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ. Ⱦɥɹ ɧɚɫ ɬɚɤɚɹ «ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ» ɜɚɠɧɚ ɢ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɨɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɚ ɧɟ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦɢ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɧɨ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɦ

Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ

ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɚ, ɤɚɤ ɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɝɪɚɮ ɉɨɥɶ Ƀɨɪɤ, ɧɟɩɪɟɞɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɧɚɹ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚ ɦɢɪ, ɧɟ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ ɢ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɭ ɢɥɢ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɸ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ «ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹ ɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ, ɜɧɨɜɶ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹ ɡɟɦɥɟɣ» [11, ɫ. 17]. ɉɪɨɲɥɨɟ, ɤɨɝɞɚ-ɬɨ ɠɢɜɨɟ, ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɦ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ «ɜɵɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɧɢɹ», ɚ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɝɨ «ɜɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɧɢɹ», ɢɛɨ «ɫ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɟɣ ɞɟɥɨ ɨɛɫɬɨɢɬ ɬɚɤ, ɱɬɨ ɡɪɟɥɢɳɧɨɟ ɢ ɥɟɝɤɨ ɛɪɨɫɚɸɳɟɟɫɹ ɜ ɝɥɚɡɚ ɜɨɨɛɳɟ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɢɞɢɦɵɦ» [11, ɫ. 17]. ɑɬɨɛɵ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɬɶ ɜ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ (ɡɪɟɥɢɳɧɨɦ) ɩɪɨɲɟɞɲɭɸ ɠɢɡɧɶ, ɧɭɠɧɨ ɜɵɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶ ɧɟɜɢɞɢɦɨɟ (ɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɧɨɟ). ɉɨɞɨɛɧɨ ɬɨɦɭ, ɤɚɤ ɞɥɹ ɝɪɚɮɚ ɉɨɥɹ Ƀɨɪɤɚ ɢ ȼ. Ⱦɢɥɶɬɟɹ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨɣ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɚɪɚ «ɠɢɡɧɶ – ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹ», ɬɚɤ ɞɥɹ Ƚ. -Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪɚ ɢ ɗ. Ȼɷɬɬɢ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɢ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɚ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɚɪɚ «ɨɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ – ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɹ», ɚ ɜ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɢ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ – ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɚɪɚ «ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ – ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ». ɋɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ ɞɜɟ ɷɬɢɯ ɩɨɥɟɦɢɤɢ, ɦɵ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɚɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɞɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɫ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ, ɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɚ ɤ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɦɭ, ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɨ ɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɧɨɬɟ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɩɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɧɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɢɪɚ.

1.ɏɚɣɞɟɝɝɟɪ Ɇ. Ɉ ɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɫɬɢɧɵ // Ɏɢɥɨɫɨɮɫɤɢɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ. 1989. ʋ 4. ɋ. 88 – 105.

2.Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪ ɏ.-Ƚ. ɉɭɬɢ ɏɚɣɞɟɝɝɟɪɚ: ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɡɞɧɟɝɨ ɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɚ. Ɇɢɧɫɤ: ɉɪɨɩɢɥɟɢ, 2007. 242 ɫ.

3.Ȼɨɪɢɫɨɜ ȿ. ȼ. Ⱥɩɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɟ ɏ.-Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪɚ // Ɍɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɟ Ƚ. Ƚ. ɒɩɟɬɚ ɢ ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɢɹ XX ɜɟɤɚ. Ʉ 120-ɥɟɬɢɸ ɫɨ ɞɧɹ ɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ Ƚɭɫɬɚɜɚ ɒɩɟɬɚ: ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɧɚɭɱɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ. 7 – 9 ɚɩɪɟɥɹ 1999 ɝɨɞɚ. Ɍɨɦɫɤ: ȼɨɞɨɥɟɣ, 1999. ɋ. 31 – 35.

4.Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪ Ƚ.-Ƚ. Ⱥɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɨɝɨ. Ɇ.: ɂɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨ, 1991. 367 ɫ.

5.Ȼɟɬɬɢ ɗ. Ƚɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɚ ɤɚɤ ɨɛɳɚɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɧɚɭɤ ɨ ɞɭɯɟ. Ɇ.: Ʉɚɧɨɧ+: «Ɋɟɚɛɢɥɢɬɚɰɢɹ», 2011. 144 ɫ.

6.ɋɢɞɨɪɨɜɚ ɍ. ȼ. ɉɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɤɚɤ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ ɜ ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɢɢ X. Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪɚ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɘɠɧɨɍɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ. ɋɟɪɢɹ: ɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɝɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ. 2011. ʋ 9(226). ɋ. 139 – 142.

7.ɇɢɤɢɬɢɧɚ Ʌ. ȼ. Ⱦɢɚɥɟɤɬɢɤɚ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ – ɞɜɚ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ: Ƚ.-Ƚ. Ƚɚɞɚɦɟɪ ɢ ɗ. Ȼɟɬɬɢ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ Ʉɚɡɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜ. 2014.

ʋ1. ɋ. 26 – 29.

8.Ʉɨɩɵɥɨɜ Ⱥ. ȼ. ɉɟɪɟɜɨɞ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɫɤɨɣ ɝɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɢ: ɩɪɨɥɟɝɨɦɟɧɵ ɤ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɸ. Ɇɭɪ-

ɦɚɧɫɤ: ɆȽɉɍ, 2008. 212 ɫ.

9.ɒɥɟɣɟɪɦɚɯɟɪ Ɏ. Ƚɟɪɦɟɧɟɜɬɢɤɚ / ɩɟɪ. ɫ ɧɟɦ. Ⱥ. Ʌ. ȼɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ; ɧɚɭɱɧ. ɪɟɞ. ɇ. Ɉ. Ƚɭɱɢɧɫɤɚɹ. ɋɉɛ.: ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣ-

ɫɤɢɣ Ⱦɨɦ, 2004. 242 ɫ.

10.Ⱦɢɥɶɬɟɣ ȼ. ɋɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɣ: ɜ 6 ɬ. / ɩɨɞ ɪɟɞ. A. B. Ɇɢɯɚɣɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɇ. ɋ. ɉɥɨɬɧɢɤɨɜɚ. Ɍ. 3: ɉɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ ɜ ɧɚɭɤɚɯ ɨ ɞɭɯɟ; ɉɟɪ. ɫ ɧɟɦ. ɩɨɞ ɪɟɞ. ȼ. Ⱥ. Ʉɭɪɟɧɧɨɝɨ. Ɇ.: Ɍɪɢ ɤɜɚɞɪɚɬɚ, 2004. ɋ. 10 – 413.

11.Ɇɢɯɚɣɥɨɜ ɂ. Ⱥ. Ɋɚɧɧɢɣ ɏɚɣɞɟɝɝɟɪ: Ɇɟɠɞɭ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɥɨɝɢɟɣ ɢ ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɢɟɣ ɠɢɡɧɢ. Ɇ.: ɉɪɨɝɪɟɫɫ-Ɍɪɚɞɢɰɢɹ: Ⱦɨɦ ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɤɧɢɝɢ, 1999. 284 ɫ.

63

ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɄɟɦȽɍ. ɋɟɪɢɹ: Ƚɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ y2017 y ʋ 2

TO THE ISSUE OF THE APPLICATIVITY OF UNDERSTANDING: THE CONTROVERSY BETWEEN E. BETTI AND H. G. GADAMER

Anastasia Ⱥ. Aksenova1, @

1 Kemerovo State University, 6, Krasnaya street, Kemerovo, Russia, 650000 @ AA9515890227@yandex.ru

Received 02.02.2017.

Accepted 28.03.2017.

Keywords: applicativity of understanding, H.-G. Gadamer, E. Betti, M. Heidegger, hermeneutics.

Abstract: Considering the controversy between E. Betti and H.-G. Gadamer, we do not seek to criticize or defend the views of one of the parties, but to draw attention to the phenomenon of the emergence of the controversy. The issue of the applicativity of understanding was considered by other scientists, but we see the clash of methodological and ontological hermeneutics as the problem of understanding situated on the border of science and life, man and world, subjectivity and objectivity. The sheer existence of the controversy evokes hermeneutic attitude to the phenomenon of historicity. Since hermeneutics is limited neither to methodological issues of interpretation of works of the past culture nor to the development of the methodology of humanitarian knowledge but relates to the fundamental structures of human existence, we should note that every "correct understanding" means following the rules and some rules of understanding do exist, but this is about the process of understanding and thinking, and not its results as "correct" or "incorrect". The experience of understanding as a practical (not pragmatic) hermeneutics is the main intention of this article.

For citation: Aksenova A. A. K voprosu applikativnosti ponimaniia: polemika mezhdu E. Betti i G.-G. Gadamerom [To the Issue of the Applicativity of Understanding: the Controversy between E. Betti and H. G. Gadamer]. Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, no. 2 (2017): 61 – 64. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.21603/2542-1840-2017-2-61-64.

References

1.Heidegger M. O sushchnosti istiny [On the essence of truth]. Filosofskie nauki = Philosophical sciences, no. 4 (1989): 88 – 105.

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