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48 EXPOSURE CLASSES, TOXICANTS IN AIR, WATER, SOIL, DOMESTIC AND OCCUPATIONAL SETTINGS

important commercially and represents about 90% of the total used. Use of asbestos has been extensive, especially in roofing and insulation, asbestos cements, brake linings, electrical appliances, and coating materials. Asbestosis, a respiratory disease, is characterized by fibrosis, calcification, and lung cancer. In humans, not only is there a long latency period between exposure and development of tumors but other factors also influence the development of lung cancer. Cigarette smoking, for example, enhances tumor formation. Recent studies have shown that stomach and bowel cancers occur in excess in workers (e.g., insulation workers) exposed to asbestos. Other fibers have been shown to cause a similar disease spectrum, for instance, zeolite fibers.

SUGGESTED READING

Air Pollutants

Costa, D. L. Air pollution. In Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th ed., C. D. Klaassen, ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001, pp. 979–1012.

Holgate, S. T., J. M. Samet, H. Koren, and R. Maynard, eds. Air Pollution and Health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1999.

Water and Soil Pollutants

Abel, P. D., ed. Water Pollution Biology. London: Taylor and Francis, 1996.

Hoffman, D. J., B. A. Rattner, G. A. Burton, and J. Cairns, eds. Handbook of Ecotoxicology, 2nd ed. Boca Raton: Lewis, 2002.

Larson, S. J., P. D. Capel, and M. S. Majewski, eds. Pesticides in Surface Waters. Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor Press, 1998.

Occupational Toxicants

Thorne, P. S. Occupational toxicology. In Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th ed., C. D. Klaassen, ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001, pp. 1123–1140.

Doull, J. Recommended limits for occupational exposure to chemicals. In Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th ed., C. D. Klaassen, ed. New York: McGrawHill, 2001, pp.1155–1176.