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4 But, although, even though, in spite of and despite (a-e)

Complete the report by putting in the correct linking words. There is always more than one possible answer. Although the ground was very wet, it was decided to go ahead with United's game against City. United were 1-0 winners (1)…………………………..not playing very well. (2)………………………..the

poor conditions, City played some attractive football, (3)…………………………..they just couldn't score.

(4)…………………………..they lost, their fans gave them a big cheer.

5 Although, even though, in spite of and despite (a-e)

Join each pair of sentences. Be careful where you put the words in brackets.

  • Nick used to smoke. He seems to be in good health, (although) Although Nick used to smoke, he seems to be in good health.

  • I couldn't sleep. I was tired, (despite) / couldn't sleep despite being tired.

  1. Trevor didn't notice the sign. It was right in front of him. (even though)

  2. Matthew doesn't know any French. It was one of his school subjects, (although)

  3. Henry's friend is a millionaire. He hates spending money, (despite)

  4. We couldn't get tickets. We queued for an hour, (in spite of)

Appendix v. Word formation

A Introduction

Look at these examples.

Lots of people believe that God exists.

Lots of people believe in the existence of God.

Exist is a verb and existence is a noun. The word existence has two parts: exist and ence. We call ence a 'suffix'. We add it to end of the verb exist to form a noun.

We can also use suffixes to form verbs, adjectives and adverbs. The system is being modernized. (= made modern)

I grew up in an industrial town. (= a town where there is a lot of industry) The man was behaving strangely. (= in a strange way)

There are many different suffixes, such as ence, ize, al, ly, tion and ment. Some of them can be used to form many different words. For example, there are a lot of nouns ending in tion: action, education, explanation, information, instruction, etc. There are no exact rules about which suffix you can add to which word. Adding a suffix can also involve other changes to the form of a word. industry —> industrial repeat —> repetition science —> scientist.

Now look at these examples.

They're going to play the match on Wednesday.

They're going to replay the match on Wednesday.

We can add re to the beginning of the verb play. We call re a 'prefix'. A prefix adds something to the meaning of a word. The verb replay means 'play again'. We can also add prefixes to nouns and adjectives. See G and H.

B Noun suffixes

ment the prospects for employment reach an agreement

ion/tion/sion take part in a discussion increase steel production ask for permission

ation/ition an invitation to a party people's opposition to the idea

ence/ance a preference for houses rather than flats a distance of ten miles

ty/ity no certainty that we shall succeed keep the door locked for security

ness people's willingness to help recovering from an illness

ing enter a building reach an understanding

C Nouns for people

er/or the driver of the car a newspaper editor

ist a place full of tourists a scientist doing an experiment

ant/ent an assistant to help with my work students at the university an/ian Republicans and Democrats the electrician rewiring the house ee an employee of the company (= someone employed)

notes for examinees (= people taking an exam)

We also use er for things, especially machines.

a hair-dryer a food mixer a cassette player

D Verb suffixes

Many verbs are formed by adding ize or ise to an adjective. Some are formed by adding en. ize European safety rules are being standardized. They privatized the company. en They're widening the road here. Meeting you has really brightened my day.

E Adjective suffixes

Most of these adjectives are formed from nouns.

al a professional musician Britain's coastal waters

ic a metallic sound a scientific inquiry

ive an informative guidebook an offer exclusive to our readers

ful a successful career feeling hopeful about the future

less feeling hopeless about the future (= without hope) powerless to do anything about it

ous guilty of dangerous driving luxurious holiday apartments

y a rocky path the salty taste of sea water

ly > 109A a friendly smile a very lively person

able/ible an acceptable error (= an error that can be accepted) a comprehensible explanation

a valuable painting (= worth a lot of money) a comfortable chair

F Adverbs

ly>108 He looked around nervously. I moved here quite recently.

G Some common prefixes

anti (= against) anti-roads protestors anti-government troops

inter (= between) an international match interstate highways in the US

mini (= small) a minicomputer the minibar in your hotel room

mis (= wrongly) mishear what someone says miscalculate the amount

multi (= many) multicoloured lights a multimillionaire

over (= too much) too fond of overeating overcrowded roads

post (= after) the post-war world a postgraduate student

pre {— before) pre-match entertainment in prehistoric times

re (— again) a reunion of old friends reread a favourite book

semi (= half) semi-skilled work sitting in a semicircle

super (= big) a huge new superstore a supertanker carrying oil

under (= too little) thin and underweight underpaid work

H Negative prefixes

We can also use a prefix to form an opposite. For example, the opposite of clear is unclear (= not clear). Un is the most common negative prefix.

dis a dishonest way to behave can't help being disorganized dislike the idea

disappear from the scene a disadvantage of the plan

il (+ 1) an illegal drug an illiberal attitude

im (+ m or p) an impossible task an impolite question

in an indirect route the invisible man a great injustice

ir (+ r) an irregular shape an irrelevant remark

non non-alcoholic drinks a non-stop flight

un an uncomfortable chair an unusual event an undated letter

uncertain what to do unpack your suitcase unzip the bag

Appendix 2: The spelling of endings

A Plural nouns

We add s to a noun to form the plural.

a car —> two cars a name —> some names

1 After s, sh, ch and x we add es /iz/.

glass —> glasses dish —> dishes match —> matches box —> boxes

2 A few nouns ending in o have es.

heroes potatoes tomatoes But most have s.

discos kilos photos pianos radios stereos studios zoos

3 When a noun ends in a consonant + y, the y changes to ies.

penny —> pennies story —> stories We do not change y after a vowel. day —> days journey —> journeys

B The present simple s ending

In the third person singular, a present simple verb ends in s. (See Unit 5B.)

I know —> he knows I work —> she works

1 After s, sh, ch and x we add es /iz/.

pass —> passes wash —> washes catch —> catches mix —> mixes

2 Some verbs ending in o have es.

go —> goes do —> does

3 When a verb ends in a consonant + y, the y changes to ies.

hurry --> hurries copy —> copies We do not change y after a vowel. stay —> stays enjoy —> enjoys

C The ed ending

Most verbs have ed in the past tense.

(See Unit 8B.) Most past participles also end

in ed. (See Unit 1 IB.)

look --> looked call -> called

1 If the verb ends in e, we add d.

hope —> hoped save —>saved

2 When a verb ends in a consonant + y, the y changes to ied.

hurry —> hurried copy —> copied

3 Sometimes we double a final consonant. This happens when a one-syllable verb ends with one vowel and one consonant, e.g. beg, plan.

beg —> begged plan —> planned For more details about doubling, see G.

D The ing-form

1 We normally leave out e when we add ing to a verb.

take —> taking drive —> driving But we keep a double e before ing.

see —> seeing agree —> agreeing

2 When a verb ends in ie, it changes to ying.

die —> dying lie —> lying But y does not change.

hurry —> hurrying

3 Sometimes we double a final consonant. This happens when a one-syllable verb ends with one vowel and one consonant, e.g. win, put.

win —> winning put --> putting For more details about doubling, see G.

E Adverbs

We form many adverbs from an adjective + ly. slow —> slowly calm —> calmly

1 We do not leave out e before ly.

safe —> safely strange --> strangely But there are a few exceptions.

due —> duly true —> truly whole —> wholly

2 When an adjective ends in a consonant + y, the y changes to ily.

angry —> angrily happy —> happily An exception is shy --> shyly.

3 When an adjective ends in a consonant + le, the e changes to y.

probable —> probably sensible —> sensibly

4 When an adjective ends in ic, we add ally.

automatic —> automatically romantic --> romantically But there is one exception. public —> publicly

F The comparison of adjectives

We form the comparative and superlative of short adjectives with er and est. See Unit 110.

old —> older, oldest

quick —> quicker, quickest

1 If the adjective ends in e, we add r and st.

late —> later, latest fine —> finer, finest

2 When an adjective ends in a consonant + y, the y changes to ier or iest.

heavy —> heavier, heaviest lucky —> luckier, luckiest

3 Sometimes we double a final consonant. This happens when a one-syllable adjective ends with one vowel and one consonant, e.g. big, flat.

big —> bigger, biggest flat —> flatter, flattest For more details about doubling, see G.

G The doubling of consonants

1 When we add ed, ing, er or est to a word, we sometimes double a final consonant. This happens when a one-syllable word ends with one vowel and one consonant, e.g. stop, get, thin, sad.

stop —> stopped get —> getting thin —> thinner sad —> saddest

2 We do not double y, w or x.

play —> played new —> newest

fax —> faxing

We do not double when there are two consonants.

ask —> asking short —> shortest

rich —> richer

And we do not double when there are two vowels.

seem —> seemed shout—> shouting

fair —> fairest

3 The rule about doubling is also true for words of more than one syllable (e.g. permit = per + mit), but only if the last syllable is stressed.

per'mit —> per'mitted

prefer —> preferring

We do not usually double a consonant when the syllable is unstressed.

'open —> opened 'enter—> entering An exception is that in British English 1 is usually doubled, even if the syllable is unstressed.

travel ~> travelled (US: traveled)

Appendix 3: Punctuation

A Full stop (.), question mark (?) and exclamation mark (!)

A sentence ends with one of these punctuation marks.

Full stop: It's cold today. The office was closed. Please be careful

Question mark: Who's that? Did you see the show? Could you wait, please?

Exclamation mark: Oh, no! I don't believe it!

In the US a full stop is called a 'period'.

B Semi-colon (;)

We can use a semi-colon between two separate statements which are linked in meaning.

Melanie is a very kind person; she visits David in hospital every day. We could also use a full stop here.

C Colon (:)

We can use a colon before an explanation or before a list. Vicky felt nervous: she hated the dark. There wasn't much in the fridge: a couple of sausages, some butter, half a bottle of milk.

D Dash (-)

A dash is rather informal. It is sometimes used instead of a colon or a semi-colon. I'm having a great time - there's lots to do here. Vicky felt nervous - she hated the dark.

E Comma (,)

We often use a comma when we link two statements with and, but or or.

Daniel was tired, and his feet were hurting. It's a really good camera, but I can't afford it. Note the two subjects in each sentence: Daniel... his feet and It... I. When there is only one subject, we do not use a comma.

Daniel sat down and took his shoes off.

We can also use a comma when a sentence has a linking word like when or although.

When the office is busy, Sarah has to work late. For commas with relative clauses, see Unit 141.

Sometimes a comma can separate off an adverb or a phrase.

Sarah, unfortunately, has to work late. On busy days, Sarah has to work late. Here the commas separate off on busy days and unfortunately.

The rules about commas are not very exact. In general, commas are more likely around longer phrases. With a short phrase there is often no comma. On busy days Sarah has to work late. Sometimes she has to work late.

It is less usual to separate off something at the end of the sentence.

Sarah has to work late when the office is busy. She stayed late to get the work done. We do not usually put a comma before to expressing purpose.

We also use commas in a list of more than two. The last two are linked by and, often without a comma. I went out with Rachel, Vicky, Emma and Matthew.

F Quotation marks (")

We put direct speech in quotation marks.

Laura said, 'You haven't put those shelves up yet.' 'I haven't had time,' replied Trevor. We normally use a comma to separate the direct speech from the rest of the sentence. The comma comes before the quotation mark. Quotation marks are also called 'quotes' or 'inverted commas'.

Double quotation marks are sometimes used. Laura said, "You haven't put those shelves up yet."

We can put quotation marks around titles.

Do you watch that American comedy series called 'Roseanne'? We often use quotation marks when we mention a word or phrase.

What does 'punctuation' mean? Rap music is also called 'hip hop'.

G Hyphen (-)

We sometimes use hyphens in these structures. Compound noun: eating ice-cream

Compound expression before a noun: an oven-ready meal Noun formed from a phrasal verb: ready for take-off Noun + ing-form: interested in rock-climbing

Before the last word of a compound number: a hundred and twenty-six people After some prefixes: anti-aircraft guns Letter + noun: sending an e-mail

The rules about hyphens are not very exact. For example, you may see a compound noun written as phonecard, phone-card or phone card. Hyphens are not very frequent in British English, and they are used even less in American English. If you are unsure, it is usually safer to write two separate words.

H Apostrophe (')

Look at these examples.

Today we're going for a drive in the country. Everyone is looking at Nick's car.

We use an apostrophe (') in short forms, when there is a missing letter, e.g. we're (= we are). See Unit 32. We also use an apostrophe with s to form the possessive of a noun, e.g. Nick's car. See Unit 93.

I Capital letters

There are two capital letters (big letters) in this sentence.

The boss said I could leave early. We use a capital letter at the beginning of a sentence and for the word I.

We also use a capital letter to begin the names of people, places, companies, etc.

Mark and Sarah New Orleans the High Street Somerset House General Motors This includes the names of books, films, magazines, etc. All the important words start with a capital letter.

The Spy Who Loved Me Four Weddings and a Funeral Newsweek

We also use a capital letter for days of the week, months of the year, holidays and festivals, historical times, nationalities and most abbreviations.

Monday August Easter the New Year the Industrial Revolution some Italian wine the UN (= the United Nations)

Appendix 5: American English

The differences between British and American English are mainly matters of pronunciation and vocabulary. There are also a few spelling differences such as British centre and colour and American center and color. There are some grammatical differences. Although they are not very great, those points that are most relevant to learners of English are explained here.

A Seem, look, etc

Compare these examples.


In British English there can be a noun (e.g. Americans do not say She seemed a good pilot.

pilot) after appear, feel, look, seem and sound. They use to be or like after these verbs.

She seemed (to be) a good pilot. She seemed to be a good pilot.

or She seemed like a good pilot. It looks (to be) a lovely evening. It looks to be a lovely evening.

OR It looks like a lovely evening. I felt a fool. I felt like a fool.

B Present perfect and past simple (Units 11-15)

The British use the present perfect for recent Americans can use either the present perfect or

actions, and especially with just, already and yet. the past simple in these sentences.

Bob has washed the dishes, look. Bob has washed the dishes, look.

or Bob washed the dishes, look. We've already eaten our lunch. We've already eaten our lunch.

or We already ate our lunch.

I've just seen Elaine. I've just seen Elaine.

or I just saw Elaine.

Have you corrected your work yet? Have you corrected your work yet?

or Did you correct your work yet?

The British normally use the present perfect Americans normally use the past simple with

with ever and never, not the past simple. ever and never, but the present perfect is

possible. Have you ever played cricket? Did you ever play baseball?

or Have you ever played baseball? The child has never seen snow before. The child never saw snow before.

or The child has never seen snow before.

C Shall (Unit 23D)

The British use will for the future, but they can Americans do not normally use shall for the

also use shall in the first person. future.

I will/I shall be here tomorrow. I will be here tomorrow.

We will/We shall contact you. We will contact you.

The British use shall to make an offer. Americans normally use should.

Shall I make the coffee? Should I make the coffee?

The British can use Shall we ...? for a Americans do not normally use shall in

suggestion. suggestions.

Shall we go for a walk? How about a walk?

Would you like to take a walk?

D Got and gotten

Both have and have got are used in Britain and in the US.

He has a lot of money./He's got a lot of money. (= He is rich.)

The British do not use gotten. In the US, have gotten expresses an action.

He's made a lot of money from his business He's gotten/made a lot of money from his

activities. business activities.

Americans also use gotten meaning 'become'. Your driving has got better. Your driving has gotten better.

E Negatives and questions with have (Unit 31)

In Britain there are two different structures. Americans normally use the auxiliary do.

I haven't (got) enough time. I don't have enough time.

or I don't have enough time.

Has Carol got a computer? Does Carol have a computer?

or Does Carol have a computer?

In the past tense, did is usual in both countries. We didn't have tickets.

F Emphatic do (Unit 33C)

The British can use do with an imperative for Do with an imperative is less common in the

emphasis. US.

Have a piece of cake. Have a piece of cake.

or Do have a piece of cake.

G Do for an action

The British can use do to refer to an action Americans do not use do in this way.

already mentioned.

I don't practise as often as I should (do). I don't practice as often as I should.

You'd better take your pill. ~ I already have You'd better take your pill. ~ I already have.


H Question tags (Unit 42)

Both the British and the Americans can use question tags when talking about facts.

Blackpool is in Lancashire, isn't it? Las Vegas is in Nevada, isn't it?

But in general Americans use tags much less often than the British. They do not use tags to persuade or to argue. A sentence like You aren't listening to me, are you? is British but not American. But Americans often use right? and OK? as tags.

I'll bring the luggage in, shall I? I'll bring the baggage in, OK?

I Can't and mustn't (Unit 46C)

The British use can't to say that something is Americans can also use mustn't to say that

impossible. something is impossible.

I rang, but there's no reply. They can't be at I called, but there's no reply. They can't be

home. home./They mustn't be home.

J Needn't and don't need to (Unit 48)

The British can use either form. Americans do not normally use needn't.

You needn't see the inspector. You don't need to see the inspector. OR You don't need to see the inspector.

K Group nouns (Unit 81B)

In Britain a group noun can usually take either a In the US a group noun takes a singular verb,

singular or a plural verb. The crowd was getting restless.

The crowd was/were getting restless. Sweden plays Germany tomorrow.

Sweden plays/play Germany tomorrow.

L The (Unit 86C and 87A)

The British use the with a musical instrument. Americans can leave out the.

/ can play the piano. I can play piano/play the piano.

The British say in hospital. Americans say in the hospital.

My sister is still in hospital. My sister is still in the hospital.

M Numbers

The British use and between hundred and the Americans can leave out and.

rest of the number. six hundred twenty

six hundred and twenty or six hundred and twenty

N Dates

There are a number of different ways of writing and saying dates, but these are the most common.


23 June June 23

'the twenty-third of June' 'June twenty-third'

'June the twenty-third'

The British write 23.6.98, and Americans write 6.23.98.

0 You and one (Unit 98C)

The British use you for people in general, Americans use you for people in general. One is

including the speaker. In more formal English unusual, they can use one.

You/One can't be too careful You can't be too careful.

P Somewhere and someplace (Unit 103)

In informal American English, everyplace, someplace, anyplace and no place can be used as well as everywhere, somewhere, etc.

Let's find somewhere to eat. Let's find somewhere/someplace to eat.

Q Adjectives and adverbs (Unit 108)

In informal speech we can sometimes use an adjective form instead of an adverb. Americans do this more than the British.

We had some really nice weather. We had some really nice/some real nice

weather. It certainly doesn't make things any easier. It certainly/sure doesn't make things any easier.

R Prepositions (Units 118-126)

There are some differences in prepositions.


round/around the village around the village

towards/toward the west toward the west

looking out of the window looking out the window/out of the window

outside the town outside the town/outside of the town

In American English there is a special use of through as a preposition of time.

He'll be on the road from Tuesday to/till He'll be on the road (from) Tuesday through

Friday. Friday.

They will stay in Brighton until the end of They will stay in Miami through April.


Note the prepositions after different.


This cup is differentfrom/to the others. This cup is different from/than the others. Compare these expressions.


in Bond Street on Fifth Avenue

at the weekend, at weekends on the weekend, on weekends

stay at home stay home

a player in the team a player on the team

ten minutes past four ten minutes past/after four

twenty to seven twenty to/of seven

write to me write me/write to me

talk to someone talk to/with someone

meet someone meet with someone

S In case (Unit 148D)

In case can have different meanings.


Take an umbrella in case it rains. In case you're sick, you should call the office.

(= because it may rain) (= if you're sick)

T Go and...

Americans can leave out and from this structure.

I'll go and buy the tickets. I'll go buy/I'll go and buy the tickets.

U The subjunctive

We can use expressions like I suggest that ... and It's important that ... to talk about what we want to happen. Look at these examples.


Tim's parents have suggested that he gets a Tim's parents have suggested that he get a job.

job/that he should get a job. It's important that everything go according to

It's important that everything goes/everything plan.

should go according to plan.

The British normally use the present simple or Americans normally use a form called the

should. (They use the subjunctive only in formal 'subjunctive', e.g. get, go. English.)

V Irregular verbs

In the past tense some verbs can have either an irregular t ending or the regular ed ending. These verbs are burn, learn, smell, spell, spill and spoil.

The British prefer the t ending, although ed is Americans normally use the ed ending, also possible.

They burnt/burned the old sofa. They burned the old sofa.

You've spelt/spelled this word wrong. You've spelled this word wrong.

But we say e.g. a slice of burnt toast in both British and American English. In Britain the verbs dream, lean and leap can be regular, or they can have a t ending. I dreamt/dreamed about you. I dreamed about you.

These three forms ending in t have the vowel sound /e/. For example, dreamt is pronounced /dremt/, and dreamed is pronounced /dri:md/.

The verb dive is regular in Britain but can be irregular in the US.

Craig dived into the water. Craig dived/dove into the water.

Appendix 6: Irregular verbs



arise arose arisen

be was, were been

bear bore borne

beat beat beaten

become became become

begin began begun

bend bent bent

bet bet bet


bind bound bound

bite bit bitten


bleed bled bled

blow blew blown

break broke broken

breed bred bred

bring brought brought

broadcast broadcast broadcast

build built built

burn burnt burnt

burned burned

burst burst burst

buy bought bought

catch caught caught

choose chose chosen

come came come

cost cost cost

creep crept crept

cut cut cut

deal dealt dealt

dig dug dug

dive dived dived

dove (us)

do did done

draw drew drawn

dream dreamt dreamt

dreamed dreamed

drink drank drunk

drive drove driven

eat ate eaten

fall fell fallen

feed fed fed

feel felt felt

fight fought fought



find found found

flee fled fled

fly flew flown

forbid forbad(e) forbidden

forget forgot forgotten

forgive forgave forgiven

freeze froze frozen

get got got

gotten (us)

give gave given

go went gone

grind ground ground

grow grew grown

hang hung hung

have had had

hear heard heard

hide hid hidden

hit hit hit

hold held held

hurt hurt hurt

keep kept kept

kneel knelt knelt

know knew known

lay laid laid

lead led led

lean leant leant

leaned leaned

leap leapt leapt

leaped leaped

learn learnt learnt

learned learned

leave left left

lend lent lent

let let let

lie lay lain

light lit lit

lighted lighted

lose lost lost

make made made

mean meant meant

meet met met

mow mowed mown




paypaid paid

put put put

read read read

ride rode ridden

ring rang rung

rise rose risen

run ran run

say said said

see saw seen

seek sought sought

sell sold sold

send sent sent

set set set

sew sewed sewn


shake shook shaken

shine shone shone

shoot shot shot

show showed shown


shrink shrank shrunk


shut shut shut

sing sang sung

sink sank sunk

sit sat sat

sleep slept slept

slide slid slid

smell smelt smelt

smelled smelled

speak spoke spoken

speed sped sped

speeded speeded

spell spelt spelt

spelled spelled

spend spent spent

spill spilt spilt

spilled spilled

spin spun spun

spit spat spat

split split split

spoil spoilt spoilt

spoiled spoiled

spread spread spread

spring sprang sprung



standstood stood

steal stole stolen

stick stuck stuck

sting stung stung

stink stank stunk


stride strode stridden

strike struck struck

swear swore sworn

sweep swept swept

swim swam swum

swing swung swung

take took taken

teach taught taught

tear tore torn

tell told told

think thought thought

throw threw thrown

tread trod trodden

understand understood understood

wake woke woken

waked waked

wear wore worn

weave wove woven

weaved weaved

weep wept wept

win won won

wind wound wound

write wrote written

The verbs in this list are also irregular when they have a prefix, e.g. overtake - overtook - overtaken, foretell - foretold - foretold.

A few verbs have irregular present simple forms:


be I am; you/we/they are; he/she/it is

do he/she/it does

go he/she/it goes

have he/she/it has

say he/she/it says

For burnt/burned, dreamt/dreamed, etc in British and American English see page 382. For gotten see page 378.

Key to the starting test

The number after the answer tells you which unit of the book has information and practice on that grammar point.

  1. c) 3 35 c) 49,53 69 b) 106

  2. c) 4,6 36 b) 54 70 a) 108

  3. d) 5,6 37 b) 55,56 71 d) 109

  4. a) 7 38 b) 57 72 b) 110,111

  5. a) 8 39 b) 58 73 d) 112

  6. d) 9 40 d) 60,62 74 b) 113

  7. c) 9,10 41 b) 61,62 75 c) 114

  8. d) 11 42 c) 64 76 d) 115

  9. b) 12,13 43 c) 65 77 c) 118

  10. d) 14 44 d) 66 78 d) 119

  11. b) 15 45 b) 68 79 c) 120

  12. d) 16 46 b) 70 80 c) 121

  13. d) 17 47 b) 72 81 a) 123

  14. a) 18,19 48 b) 73 82 c) 124, 125

  15. a) 20 49 d) 74 83 d) 126, 127

  16. b) 23 50 c) 76,77 84 d) 128-130

  17. b) 24,25 51 a) 78 85 d) 131

  18. d) 26 52 c) 80 86 c) 132

  19. c) 27 53 d) 81 87 a) 133

  20. b) 28 54 d) 83,84 88 c) 134

  21. d) 31 55 a) 86 89 d) 136

  22. b) 33 56 b) 87 90 d) 137

  23. a) 34,36 57 c) 89 91 b) 139

  24. c) 37 58 c) 90 92 c) 140

  25. c) 38 59 c) 91 93 c) 141,142

  26. b) 40 60 d) 92 94 b) 143

  27. d) 41 61 b) 94 95 a) 144,147

  28. d) 42 62 d) 95 96 b) 145, 147

  29. c) 43 63 d) 96 97 d) 146,147

  30. d) 44 64 d) 99 98 d) 149

  31. b) 46 65 a) 100, 101 99 d) 150

  32. c) 47 66 b) 102 100 d) 151

  33. a) 48 67 c) 103

  34. b) 51,52 68 a) 105

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